English  Español

History

William Moulton Marston 1893-1947

Was born in Saugus, Massachusetts, he got his degree in laws in Harvard, and later his doctorate in Psicology. William Moulton Marston was an accomplished man who was not only a lawyer and a physiological psychologist; he also produced the first functional lie detector polygraph, authored self-help books and created the Wonder Woman comic. His major contribution to psychology came when he generated the DISC characteristics of emotions and behavior of normal people. Marston, after conducting research on human emotions, published his findings in 1928 in his book titled Emotions of Normal People. In this book, he explained his theory that people illustrate their emotions through behavior using the four behavior types called Dominance (D), Inducement (I), Submission (S), and Compliance (C). Also, he argued that these behavioral types came from people’s sense of self and their interaction with the environment. He included two dimensions that influenced people’s emotional behavior. The first dimension is whether a person views his environment as favorable or unfavorable. The second dimension is whether a person perceives himself as having control or lack of control over his environment. Although William Moulton Marston contributed to the creation of the DISC Assessment, he did not create DISC as an assessment. In 1956, Walter Clarke, an industrial psychologist, was able to construct the DISC assessment using William Moulton Marston’s theory of the DISC model. He accomplished this by publishing the Activity Vector Analysis, a checklist of adjectives on which he asked people to indicate descriptions that were accurate about themselves. This assessment was intended for use in businesses needing assistance in choosing qualified employees. His assessment was later amended by Walter Clarke Associates and called a self-description. Also, it no longer required a checklist. Instead, test takers choose from two or more terms. Even with all of William Moulton Marston's and Walter Clarke's developments, the DISC assessment still had further developments to undertake. John Greier contributed to this assessment by producing the DISC personality profile in 1958. Greier conducted hundreds of clinical interviews which assisted him to further progress the fifteen patterns which Walter Clarke had exposed. Since then a number of publishers have updated and/or generated their own versions of the DISC assessment. These have had varying degrees of validity and reliability.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISC

Wondering why people do what they do, is as old as humanity and is based on the observation of behavior. The answers to this question have evolved and have gone through different stages. 

Empedocles. 444 B.C.

He was the founder of the school of medicine in Sicily. He argued that all came from four roots or elements: earth, air, fire and water. The combination of these four elements was an infinite number of fotms. These, influenced by two natural forces, love and hate, formed human behavior.

Hippocrates 400 B.C.

It was the observer of people par excellence. He realized the effect of weather and terrain on the individual. He defined four types of environment to which assigned a behavior and an appearance for every environment, even suggested what people will conquer others in battle based on the environmental conditions in which they were raised. Believe the atmosphere and terrain affect the behavior and appearance. Hippocrates advanced in their theories and the next thing he did was identify four temperaments (sanguine, melancholic, choleric and phlegmatic) who partnered with four bodily fluids (blood, black bile, bile and mucosa).

Galen 130 A.D. - 200 A.D.

He lived in Rome and also spoke of the impact of fluids on the behavior and temperament. The explanation of the temperaments was that if you have a cold and fast fluid you are directive, dominant and decisive and like to lead persons, if you have a fast fluid type warm or hot your mouth will have the need to express and talk all the time, if you have a fluid that is mild and slow you are family oriented, stable and relational behavior, if you have a slow and cold fluid you are a thinker, a meticulous perfectionist one who wants accurate in detail.

Carl Gustav Jung 1875-1921

Carl Gustav Jung was born in Switzerland. He was a psychiatrist, psychologist and essayist, a key figure in the initial stage of psychoanalysis, later, founder of the school of analytical psychology, also called complex psychology of Depth Psychology. He developed the "psychological types".